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Diverticule de Zenker

En anatomie, un diverticule de Zenker est un diverticule (une poche) de pulsion qui se forme au-dessus du sphincter œsophagien supérieur entre le faisceau thyroïdien du muscle constricteur inférieur et le faisceau cricoïdien du muscle constricteur inférieur (aussi appelé muscle cricopharyngien). Sa présence peut-être due à une faiblesse de la paroi musculaire ce qui permet à la muqueuse de faire saillie et de former cette sorte de poche. Le diagnostic est radiologique, à l’aide d’un transit œso-gastro-duodénal qui visualise le diverticule sous forme d’une image d’addition du tiers supérieur de l’œsophage. L’endoscopie œso-gastro-duodénale est quant à elle classiquement contre-indiquée car dangereuse, avec un risque de perforation du diverticule au moment de l’introduction de l’endoscope dans la bouche œsophagienne. Le traitement consiste soit en une chirurgie (résection du diverticule associée à une section du muscle crico-pharyngien), soit de plus en plus souvent en un traitement endoscopique avec résection du septum séparant le diverticule de l’œsophage.

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