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Polyglobulie

La polyglobulie est une anomalie de la production des globules rouges (ou érythropoïèse) définie par l’augmentation de la valeur absolue du nombre d’érythrocytes (ou globules rouges) circulant dans le sang. Elle répond à deux mécanismes distincts : la polyglobulie primitive (ou maladie de Vaquez) est due à une anomalie des cellules souches de la moelle hématopoïétique qui acquiert des caractéristiques tumorales qui prolifèrent et entrainent une surproduction de globules rouges. La polyglobulie secondaire est, elle, liée à une augmentation du taux sanguin d’hormones stimulant l’érythropoïèse, en particulier l’EPO (érythropoïétine), le plus souvent secondaire à une hypoxie chronique (L’hypoxie consiste en une oxygénation insuffisante des tissus, l’ischémie tissulaire provoque une stimulation de la sécrétion d’EPO par le rein) ou par sécrétion inappropriée d’EPO. Dans ce cas, la moelle est normale.

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